Evolution

The
term “evolution” in mathematics, and more specifically arithmetic, was coined
in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. It had gone out of favour in
mathematical terminology by the first quarter of the twentieth century. It is
the root of any given power, essentially the inverse of involution.
For example, 5 is the cube root of 125 and 7 is the fourth root (or biquadrate
root, to use an old term) of 2401. What Macdonald has written in his notebook
is copied directly from Nicolas Pike’s *A
New and Complete System of Arithmetick*.